To Live Forever: A Journey Through The Egyptian Amduat   

By Dr. Lisa Swart 

The ancient Egyptian Amduat is the oldest of several funerary texts depicted on the walls of the pharaohs’ tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the New Kingdom. The Amduat was one of the first completely illustrated texts that defined what the Egyptian underworld was imagined to look like, and depicted the nightly journey of the sun god, Re through the twelve hours of the underworld. Through looking at the Amduat in the tomb of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, this article takes the reader along on the journey through the Egyptian underworld.

Amduat, Valley of the Kings, Tuthmosis III, funerary texts, underworld, Re, sun god

Digging Up Troy 

By Jesse Obert B.A.

The story of the archaeological site of Troy is a tragic one to say the least. Early excavations left Troy damaged and only raised more questions about the site. It was a unique site in the field of classical archaeology because, until only recently, excavators were desperately trying to justify Homer's Iliad. For these excavators, the discovery of another layer was often greeted with dread and not excitement. The prospect of discovering a Homeric Troy corrupted the archaeology. Excavators referred to the text as an archaeological guideline and, more often than not, conclusions were made with the intention of making the myth seem more real. The archaeologists at Troy had an agenda, making their work less of a scientific exploration and more of a prejudiced treasure hunt. 

Keywords: archaeology, Troy, Homer, Iliad, Heinrich Schliemann, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Carl Belegn, Manfred Korfmann  

Minoan Lily: The Spiral Story Of Perpetual Power 

By Aikaterini Kanatselou M.A.

The natural aspect of Bronze Age Cretan culture has been thoroughly examined since the foundation of Minoan archaeology. After a century of alternating views and successive stereotyping processes, the young scholar of Aegean prehistory is called upon to make innovative remarks on traditional fields such as iconography, symbolic expression and religious concepts. In this article, a common feature of Minoan art - the lily flower - is being viewed as a dual sign of power and continuity, combining geometrical abstraction and naturalistic infusion in constant motion. A short overlook at material evidence and theoretical approaches attempts to imply the probable importance of a single shape for the insight of Minoan cognition and codification. 

Keywords: Crete, Minoan, nature, linearity, symbol, waz-lily, spiral, combination, move, perpetuity

Inanna's Descent: A Balm For The Sting Of Injustice 

By Joshua J. Mark M.A.

The Sumerian poem, The Descent of Inanna, has been interpreted by some modern writers as depicting a `psychological journey toward wholeness’. This modern-day interpretation cannot be supported by the text itself and, certainly, the poem would not have been understood in such a light by an ancient audience. This paper explains the reasons why this is so through analysis of the poem in historical context. 

Keywords: Inanna, Mesopotamia, Gilgamesh, Joseph Campbell, underworld 

Women In Situ: The Roles And Representation Of Women And Their Status In The Archaeological Record 

By Amy Talbot B.A.

Despite continuing breakthroughs in gender archaeology, it is vital that it stays in an area focused on current research, in order to completely dispel the old myths of women staying at home to forage, or for women to not have high status in their communities. In fact this article intends to show some rare examples of independent women ruling within a male society, and women shown in high and equal regard, not just as homemakers and mothers. These four brief examples will hopefully demonstrate four very different instances in the archaeological record of intelligent and strong women to help dispel any myths out there. 

Keywords: archaeology, women, status, Mesopotamia, Maya, Crete, Amazons, gender 

Digital Archaeology Taking Over? 

By Melanie Magdalena B.A.

Archaeology is becoming a computer game. Technology has become the norm of all scientific practice. According to Dr. Harry Schafer, 99% of history can only be revealed by archaeology, since written history only occurred recently and we have little to no documentation about the past. Digital archaeology is leaving sites underground hidden away from the world. Lack of public interest in archaeology has caused a shortage of funding for projects and the transition into cyberspace. The purpose of this article is to increase public awareness about the impact of digital archaeology on our cultural heritage. 

Keywords: archaeology, digital, non-invasive, 3D models 

How Fire Made Us Smarter: Early Human Cognition In Light Of Controlled Fire Use 

By Dr. Terrence Twoney 

This article outlines how we can investigate the cognitive implications of controlled fire use by Middle Pleistocene humans. Controlling fire involved accessing, maintaining and using fire. These behaviors imply planning, self control and group level cooperation directed at future rewards, which indicate cognitive abilities associated with our enhanced social awareness and cognitive control. Evidence suggests that controlled fire use may have appeared early in the Middle Pleistocene. The cognitive abilities of early humans from this time are not well understood. This means an investigation into the cognitive demands of controlling fire may shed light on the cognitive abilities of Middle Pleistocene humans. 

Keywords: anthropology, controlled fire use, Human cognition, Middle Pleistocene


Heritage Under Siege

American archaeologist Lemont "Monty" Dobson speaks out about the worldwide economic downturn and the many real threats and dangers to our planet's cultural heritage.

The Anglo-Saxons Dazzled in the Dark Ages 

James Wiener interviews Professor Larry Swain on the importance of the Staffordshire Hoard.

William Matthew Flinders Petrie The Father of Egyptian Archaeology 

The life and times of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, considered one of the greatest contributors to the science of archaeology, and is renowned for pioneering archaeological methods still utilized in the field today, along with making major discoveries in Egypt and Palestine.

Egypt in Milan

There are many places which are famous throughout the world for their Egyptian collections and Egyptianising monuments, such as Paris, Rome or London. In this article our intrepid Egyptologist Charlotte Booth takes us on a fascinating journey to Milan, an Italian city with something to offer the Egyptology tourist. The article describes the best places to visit in order to view Egyptian influenced funerary monuments, Egyptomania in architecture, Egyptian themed artwork and ancient artefacts.

Whats On

Twelve must see exhibitions in Europe and the USA.


Six great websites providing much needed resources for students of archaeology.

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