To Live Forever: A Journey Through The Egyptian Amduat
By Dr. Lisa Swart
The ancient Egyptian Amduat is the oldest of several funerary texts depicted on the walls of the pharaohs’ tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the New Kingdom. The Amduat was one of the first completely illustrated texts that defined what the Egyptian underworld was imagined to look like, and depicted the nightly journey of the sun god, Re through the twelve hours of the underworld. Through looking at the Amduat in the tomb of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, this article takes the reader along on the journey through the Egyptian underworld.
Keywords: Amduat, Valley of the Kings, Tuthmosis III, funerary texts, underworld, Re, sun god
Digging Up Troy
By Jesse Obert B.A.
The story of the archaeological site of Troy is a tragic one to say the least. Early excavations left Troy damaged and only raised more questions about the site. It was a unique site in the field of classical archaeology because, until only recently, excavators were desperately trying to justify Homer's Iliad. For these excavators, the discovery of another layer was often greeted with dread and not excitement. The prospect of discovering a Homeric Troy corrupted the archaeology. Excavators referred to the text as an archaeological guideline and, more often than not, conclusions were made with the intention of making the myth seem more real. The archaeologists at Troy had an agenda, making their work less of a scientific exploration and more of a prejudiced treasure hunt.
Keywords: archaeology, Troy, Homer, Iliad, Heinrich Schliemann, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Carl Belegn, Manfred Korfmann
Minoan Lily: The Spiral Story Of Perpetual Power
By Aikaterini Kanatselou M.A.
The natural aspect of Bronze Age Cretan culture has been thoroughly examined since the foundation of Minoan archaeology. After a century of alternating views and successive stereotyping processes, the young scholar of Aegean prehistory is called upon to make innovative remarks on traditional fields such as iconography, symbolic expression and religious concepts. In this article, a common feature of Minoan art - the lily flower - is being viewed as a dual sign of power and continuity, combining geometrical abstraction and naturalistic infusion in constant motion. A short overlook at material evidence and theoretical approaches attempts to imply the probable importance of a single shape for the insight of Minoan cognition and codification.
Keywords: Crete, Minoan, nature, linearity, symbol, waz-lily, spiral, combination, move, perpetuity
Inanna's Descent: A Balm For The Sting Of Injustice
By Joshua J. Mark M.A.
The Sumerian poem, The Descent of Inanna, has been interpreted by some modern writers as depicting a `psychological journey toward wholeness’. This modern-day interpretation cannot be supported by the text itself and, certainly, the poem would not have been understood in such a light by an ancient audience. This paper explains the reasons why this is so through analysis of the poem in historical context.
Keywords: Inanna, Mesopotamia, Gilgamesh, Joseph Campbell, underworld
Women In Situ: The Roles And Representation Of Women And Their Status In The Archaeological Record
By Amy Talbot B.A.
Despite continuing breakthroughs in gender archaeology, it is vital that it stays in an area focused on current research, in order to completely dispel the old myths of women staying at home to forage, or for women to not have high status in their communities. In fact this article intends to show some rare examples of independent women ruling within a male society, and women shown in high and equal regard, not just as homemakers and mothers. These four brief examples will hopefully demonstrate four very different instances in the archaeological record of intelligent and strong women to help dispel any myths out there.
Keywords: archaeology, women, status, Mesopotamia, Maya, Crete, Amazons, gender
By Melanie Magdalena B.A.
Archaeology is becoming a computer game. Technology has become the norm of all scientific practice. According to Dr. Harry Schafer, 99% of history can only be revealed by archaeology, since written history only occurred recently and we have little to no documentation about the past. Digital archaeology is leaving sites underground hidden away from the world. Lack of public interest in archaeology has caused a shortage of funding for projects and the transition into cyberspace. The purpose of this article is to increase public awareness about the impact of digital archaeology on our cultural heritage.
Keywords: archaeology, digital, non-invasive, 3D models
How Fire Made Us Smarter: Early Human Cognition In Light Of Controlled Fire Use
By Dr. Terrence Twoney
This article outlines how we can investigate the cognitive implications of controlled fire use by Middle Pleistocene humans. Controlling fire involved accessing, maintaining and using fire. These behaviors imply planning, self control and group level cooperation directed at future rewards, which indicate cognitive abilities associated with our enhanced social awareness and cognitive control. Evidence suggests that controlled fire use may have appeared early in the Middle Pleistocene. The cognitive abilities of early humans from this time are not well understood. This means an investigation into the cognitive demands of controlling fire may shed light on the cognitive abilities of Middle Pleistocene humans.
Keywords: anthropology, controlled fire use, Human cognition, Middle Pleistocene
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