Enduring Fictions of Late Victorian Fantasy: Sir Arthur Evans and the Faience ‘Goddesses’ from Minoan Crete

By Andrea Sinclair, M.A.

This article is one small contribution towards dispelling longstanding myths about the nature of Minoan religion and art in popular culture, and in doing so focuses on the heavily restored faience ‘snake goddess’ figurines from the Temple Repositories from the Bronze Age site of Knossos in Crete.

Keywords: Snake Goddess, Minoan goddesses, Minoan religion, Arthur Evans, Knossos, Minoan Crete, Aegean faience, Minoan faience

Egypt and her Neighbours: The Libyans

By Dr. Lisa Swart

Known to the Egyptians since at least the Middle Kingdom, the Libyans, groups of nomadic pastoralists from the western regions beyond Egypt’s borders became a major threat to the security of Egypt. Resettlement of prisoners, migrations, and repeated incursions during the late New Kingdom led to the growth of Libyan power-bases within Egypt, specifically within the Delta region. Consequently, by the end of the Twenty-First Dynasty, a Libyan, Shoshenq I, came to rule Egypt and founded the Twenty-Second Dynasty.

Keywords: Meshwesh, Libu, Tjenhu, Tjemhu, Cyrenaica, Silphium, Shoshenq I, Twenty-Second Dynasty, Libyans

The Development of Siege Warfare in Classical Antiquity

By Jesse Obert, B.A.

Siege warfare has influenced human settlement since the dawn of civilization. Some of the earliest human communities included fortification walls, and the evolution of these fortifications directly correlated to the evolution of siege technology. This had a profound impact on how cities insured their citizens’ safety and how power shifted across the Mediterranean. In antiquity, siege warfare progressed with the cultural ideals of the time and ultimately determined the physical space that communities occupied.

Keywords: Greece, Rome, Siege Warfare, Fortifications, Classical Archaeology

The Use of Coins in the Roman Empire

By Dr. Constantina Katsari

The extensive use of coined money is often viewed as as a sign of an advanced economy rather than a primitive one. How far did the Roman economy resemble today's financial system? This article explores the sectors of the Roman economy in which coins were used. It seems that the modern monetary system, which has been disentangled from the bi-metallic standard in the beginning of the twentieth century and is today based on the exchange rate of the dollar and the value of petrol, does not have much in common with the Roman monetary system.

Keywords: Rome, Roman Empire, Roman Economy, Coins, Currency, Classical Archaeology

Italica: Spain’s Pompeii
By Charlotte Booth, M.A.

Pompeii and Herculaneum are unique archaeological sites preserved beneath the volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius providing a snap shot of Roman life, and attract 2.5 million visitors every year. However, Italica, located eight kilometres north of Seville in Spain is the third largest Roman city, and is still waiting to be fully excavated. Indeed, much of the city, which was officially decreed an Archaeological Site only in 1989, lies under the local town of Santiponce. Even if the finances were available it is unlikely that it would ever be completely excavated.

Keywords: Roman Empire, Italica, Santiponce, Spain, Classical Archaeology 

Gertrude Lowthian Bell: The Uncrowned Queen of Iraq

By Dr. Lisa Swart

The life and times of Gertrude Lowthian Bell who was instrumental in preserving Iraq’s ancient heritage at the turn of the twentieth century. 

Keywords: Iraq, Cultural Heritage, Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Biography

Cultural  Heritage at Risk: The Case of Northern Cyprus

By Leah Marangos, M.A.

July 30th of this year marks the 39th anniversary of the Turkish military invasion of northern Cyprus. At the time of the 1974 conflict and subsequent division of Cyprus into north and south, the island’s two main ethnic groups were Greek and Turkish but both shared a Cypriot origin. Instances of looting in the north of Hellenic artifacts, dating from the Archaic to the Byzantine period, have occurred for the last three decades at an exorbitant rate. The lack of economic growth in the north coupled with the idea that the Hellenic heritage belongs to another “group”, has encouraged the looting of these artifacts. The artifacts stolen are sold on the black market and rarely retrieved. The dangers that Hellenic cultural heritage faces on Northern Cyprus are exacerbated by the lack of international intervention as a result of their political standing. This lack of intervention highlights the failings of international organizations committed to ending the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage,
Looting, Northern Cyprus, Turkey, 

Lodi Castle: A Subterranean History

By Davide Tansini

The term ‘minor’ castle is often applied to lesser known and often poorly preserved fortifications that have been reduced or transformed over the centuries to structures of secondary importance. Such ‘minor’ castles often provide interesting starting points for investigation, especially when these involve long forgotten structures located just a few metres beneath bustling city streets. A case in point is
the Castello di Porta Regale, also known as Lodi Castle, located on the Lombard plain in northern Italy on the banks of the River Adda, 25 km southeast of Milan...

Italy, Lodi Castle, Castello di Porta Regale, Medieval, Renaissance, Lombard Plain

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